In :
import oscovida


# The reproduction number R¶

In this notebook:

1. we describe some basics regarding the R value
2. Study how we can compute R from measured data of cases (or deaths) using two different methods
3. Apply these methods on different types of fake data with known values of R to recostruct these values.
4. Show how R is computed on the OSCOVIDA site
In :
oscovida.display_binder_link('r-value.ipynb')


# 1. Reproduction number R¶

## 1.1 Introduction¶

The reproduction number (Wikipedia) can be thought of as the expected number of cases directly generated by one case in a population.

In other words, if a person is infected, he will infect $R$ other people during the duration of his illness. If $n$ people are infected, they will affect $Rn$ people. These $Rn$ people will infect $RRn=R^2n$ people, etc. This leads to the exponential growth of the type $nR^s$ with $s$ being the number of periods over which one generation of infected people will infect the next.

One way to represent $R$ is $R = \beta \,\tau$ where $\beta$ represents an average infection-producing contacts per unit time and $\tau$ the infectious period. The infections period for COVID19 is often assumed to be 4 or 5 days.

For exponential growth with case numbers $n(t)$ increasing as

\begin{equation} n(t) = n(t_0) R^{t/\tau}, \tag{1} \end{equation}

the logarithmic growth rate $K$ can be used to describe the growth:

\begin{equation} K = \frac{\mathrm{d} \ln(n)}{\mathrm{d}t}. \tag{2} \end{equation}

The relationship between $R$ and $K$ is

\begin{equation} R = \exp(K\tau) \tag{3} \end{equation}

or equivalently $K = \ln(R)/\tau$.

## 1.2 Create data with perfect exponential growth¶

In :
# Setup svg rendering in notebook
%config InlineBackend.figure_formats = ['svg']
import numpy as np

In :
n_points = 15         # 15 points (=days) in this data set
t = np.arange(0, n_points, 1)
tdiff = np.arange(0.5, n_points - 1, 1)  # we need this later
N0 = 1                # infections on day 0
tau = 4               # average infectious time: 4 days
R = 2.1               # R - number of new infections per
n = N0*(R**(t/tau))   # compute vector n with perfect exponential growth

In :
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 4))
ax.plot(t, n, 'o', label=f'n(t) = {N0} * ({R} ^ (t/{tau}))')
ax.legend()
ax.set_xlabel("time t [days]");
ax.set_ylabel("n(t)");


## 1.3 Compute K and R from this synthetic data¶

In :
ln_n = np.log(n)
K = np.diff(ln_n)                 # equation (2)
R_reconstructed = np.exp(K*tau)   # equation (3)

In :
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10,4))
ax.plot(t, ln_n, 'o-', label='ln(n)')
ax.plot(tdiff, K, 'x-', label='K = d ln(n) / dt')
ax.plot(tdiff, R_reconstructed, '^-', label='R reconstructed')
ax.set_xlabel('t [days]')
ax.legend()

Out:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7f9f45c82be0>

We expect that the reconstructed value R_reconstructed is the same as R when we computed the synthetic data for n(t):

In :
R_reconstructed

Out:
array([2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1,
2.1])
In :
R

Out:
2.1

We turn this into an automatic test:

In :
assert R_reconstructed == R    # checks only first data point
# where we have perfect agreement

In :
R_reconstructed - R               # are all values of R_reconstructed
# exactly identical to R?

Out:
array([ 0.00000000e+00,  0.00000000e+00,  0.00000000e+00, -4.44089210e-16,
4.44089210e-16,  4.44089210e-16,  4.44089210e-16, -1.33226763e-15,
4.44089210e-16,  4.44089210e-16,  4.44089210e-16,  4.44089210e-16,
-3.10862447e-15,  4.44089210e-16])

The values are essentialy the same: deviations are of the order of $10^{-15}$.

We compare all values but allow for some small deviation due to limited machine precision:

In :
assert np.allclose(R_reconstructed, R)


## 1.4 Summary¶

• We know the role of reproduction number $R$ in the exponential growth equation (1)
• If we compute daily data points with exponential growth and grow rate $R$, we can use (2) to reconstruct $R$ from the data.
• This was just a little exercise to gain confidence with that equation.

The potentially harder question is: how do we compute $R$ from measured data which does not show perfect exponential growth.

# 2. Compute R from measured data¶

## 2.1 Method 1: as used by Robert Koch Institute (RKI)¶

The bulletin from the Robert Koch institute  reports that an average infectious period of $\tau = 4$ days is assumed. Based on that information, the description of the method to compute $R$ (or $R_0$) is 

• compute an average $<n>_1$ of daily new infections over 4 days (say days 0 to 3)
• compute an average $<n>_2$ of daily new infections over 4 subsequent days (say days 4 to 7)
• compute the quotient $<n>_2 / <n>_1$

The method is references as being reported in .

 "Bei einer konstanten Generationszeit von 4 Tagen, ergibt sich R als Quotient der Anzahl von Neuerkrankungen in zwei aufeinander folgenden Zeitabschnitten von jeweils 4 Tagen. Der so ermittelte R-Wert wird dem letzten dieser 8 Tage zugeordnet, weil erst dann die gesamte Information vorhanden ist."

 Wallinga J, Lipsitch M: How generation intervals shape the relationship between growth rates and reproductive numbers. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 2007;274(1609):599–60

## 2.2 Method 2: K from d log(n)/dt and tau¶

We can also try to use equations (2) and (3) on measured data to extract $R$, as shown in section 1.3 above.

# 3. Testing Method 1 and Method 2¶

## 3.1 Approach¶

To test method 1 and method 2, we will create different types of 'synthetic data' that does not show perfect exponential growth. Yet, we create it with a known (but potentially varying) $R$ values, and see how accurately the different methods can reconstruct these $R$ values from the data.

We test this here with the following types of data:

• Test A: perfect exponential growth (one $R$ value)
• Test B: exponential growth with (step) changes in $R$ over time
• Test C: adding noise to the data points

## 3.2.1 Test A - method 1 (RKI)¶

In :
import pandas as pd

In :
s = pd.Series(n, index=t)    # turn numpy array into pandas Series

In :
c = s.diff().dropna()        # compute the change from day to day
# (i.e. dn/dt, time unit is one day
# and drop the first value for which can't compute dn/dt
# and for which the diff method has insert NaN

In :
mean1 = c[0:4].mean()        # take mean over first 4 days
mean2 = c[4:8].mean()        # take mean over next 4 days

In :
quotient = mean2 / mean1     # Compute R as quotient of the two means
quotient

Out:
2.1
In :
assert quotient == R


Seems to be okay (for perfect exponential growth)

### 3.2.2 Test A - method 2: R from d log(n)/dt and tau¶

We can also try to use equations (2) and (3) on measured data to extract $R$. We have done this above already, but complete it here for completeness:

In :
K = np.log(s).diff().dropna()
R_reconstructed2 = np.exp(K*tau)
R_reconstructed2

Out:
1     2.1
2     2.1
3     2.1
4     2.1
5     2.1
6     2.1
7     2.1
8     2.1
9     2.1
10    2.1
11    2.1
12    2.1
13    2.1
14    2.1
dtype: float64
In :
assert np.allclose(R_reconstructed2.values, R)


This also works fine.

## Create fake data¶

First, we define a function fake_growth that can create test data which exhibits exponential growth of $n(t)$ for where the growth rate (that depends on $R$) can vary as a function of $t$:

In :
def fake_growth(delta_t, Rs, tau: float, N0:int=1, debug:bool=False):
"""Expect
- delta_t: a vector with ints: each int indicates for how many days
R should be constant
- Rs: a vector with the corresponding values for R
- tau: a constant for the assumption of the average infectious period
- N0=1: number of initial cases (for t=0)

Assumes exponential growth according to
N[i] = N0*(R**(t/tau)) from day i to day i+1 with rate R, where
R is specified through delta_t and Rs.

Compute and return a time series n.

Also return a vector of days t and a vector of values Rvec
that show which R values were used for which interval.

Returns triplet (n, t, Rvec).

"""
def f(R_, t_, tau, c):
"""Exponential growth """
return c * R_**(t_/tau)

# check assumptions
assert len(delta_t) == len(Rs)

# total number of days
total_days = sum(delta_t) + 1
if debug:
print(f"Looking at {total_days} days.")

# create arrays
t = np.arange(total_days)
Rvec = np.zeros(shape=t.shape)
#dN = np.zeros(shape=t.shape)
n = np.zeros(shape=t.shape)   # final result of function

#dN = N0
counter = 0
n[counter] = N0

counter += 1
for dt, this_R in zip(delta_t, Rs):
if debug:
print (dt, this_R)
for i in range(dt):
n[counter] = f(this_R, i+1, tau, N0)
assert t[counter] == counter
Rvec[counter - 1] = this_R
counter += 1
# take the last value as the starting point for next
# sequence
N0 = n[counter-1]

# last point in Rvec is meaningless
Rvec[counter-1] = np.nan

# n has values for n(t), length total_days
# t has values for n(t), length total_days
# Rvec has value for R that was valid from t to t and resulted in
# value for n.
# Rvec has value for R that was valid from t to t and resulted in
# value for n.
# Rvec[-1] has np.nan

return n, t, Rvec

# Try a simple test set, where tau=1 and R is 2, 3, and 4, for 3 days, 2 days and 1 day, respectively
# Initial value is N0=1
n, t, Rvec = fake_growth([3, 2, 1], [2, 3, 4], tau=1, N0=1)

In :
n

Out:
array([  1.,   2.,   4.,   8.,  24.,  72., 288.])
In :
t

Out:
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6])
In :
Rvec

Out:
array([ 2.,  2.,  2.,  3.,  3.,  4., nan])

A function to test our implementation of the fake_growth:

In :
def test_fake_growth():
""" Assume constant growth rate, and expect exponential growth."""
R_number = 2.1
tau = 4.5
N0 = 1.3
n1, t, Rvec = fake_growth([5, 5, 2, 10], 4*[R_number], tau, N0)
n2 = N0 * R_number ** (t / tau)   # correct result
diff = n2 - n1                    # should be zero
max_err = np.max(np.abs(diff))
print(f"Max error is {max_err}")
assert max_err < 1e-14
return n1, n2

n1, n2 = test_fake_growth();

Max error is 7.105427357601002e-15


Let's create a plot of the fake data, so we better understand its characteristics:

In :
# change growth rate
n_fake, t, Rvec = fake_growth([4, 5, 7, 6], [2, 3, 2.5, 5], tau)

# smooth it
# n_fake = pd.Series(n_fake).rolling(7, center=True,
#                        win_type='gaussian',
#                        min_periods=7).mean(std=3)

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
fig, (ax1, ax2, ax3) = plt.subplots(3, 1, figsize=(10, 6))
ax1.plot(t, Rvec, '-o',color='C1', label="time dependent R (input)")
ax2.plot(t[:-1], np.diff(np.log(n_fake)), '.-', color='C3', label=f'd log(n)/dt)')
n_fake = pd.Series(n_fake)  # turn into pandas.Series to get diff() method
ax3.bar(t, n_fake.diff(), label='daily new cases')
ax3.set_xlabel('time [days]');
ax1.legend(),ax2.legend(), ax3.legend();

In :
Rvec.shape

Out:
(23,)
In :
n_fake.shape

Out:
(23,)

### Now we create some fake data that will be used to test the different methods of computing R from it.¶

In :
n_fake, t, Rvec = fake_growth([25, 25, 25], [2, 3, 2.5], tau=4, N0=1)

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
fig, (ax1, ax2, ax3) = plt.subplots(3, 1, figsize=(10, 6))
ax1.plot(t, Rvec, '-o',color='C1', label="time dependent R")
ax2.plot(t[:-1], np.diff(np.log(n_fake)), '.-', color='C3', label=f'd log(n)/dt)')
n_fake = pd.Series(n_fake)  # turn into pandas.Series to get diff() method
ax3.bar(t, n_fake.diff(), label='daily new cases')
ax3.set_xlabel('time [days]');
ax1.legend(),ax2.legend(), ax3.legend();


Turn this data into a DataFrame for easier processing

In :
df = pd.DataFrame({'R_td' : Rvec, 'n_td' : n_fake, 'c_td' : list(n_fake.diff()[1:]) + [np.nan]})


The column labels are:

• R_td : R Time Dependent (this is the input R that we want to reconstruct)
• n_td : the time-dependent cases (this is what would be reported from detected infections)
• c_td : change in n_td from day to day
In :
df.head()

Out:
R_td n_td c_td
0 2.0 1.000000 0.189207
1 2.0 1.189207 0.225006
2 2.0 1.414214 0.267579
3 2.0 1.681793 0.318207
4 2.0 2.000000 0.378414
In :
df.tail()

Out:
R_td n_td c_td
71 2.5 8.966653e+06 2.308316e+06
72 2.5 1.127497e+07 2.902554e+06
73 2.5 1.417752e+07 3.649768e+06
74 2.5 1.782729e+07 4.589341e+06
75 NaN 2.241663e+07 NaN

### 3.3.1 Test Method 1: RKI for time dependent $R$¶

In :
# Smoothing makes things a lot better:
df['smooth_c'] = df['c_td'].rolling(7, center=True,
win_type='gaussian',
min_periods=7).mean(std=3)
# but important to have min_periods the same as the rolling period

# compute the mean over 4 days
df['mean4d'] = df['c_td'].rolling(4).mean()

# compute the time dependent R that  is reconstructed:
df['R_td-recon'] = df['mean4d'] / df['mean4d'].shift(4)

# show R_td (known) next to R_td-recon (reconstructed)

Out:
R_td R_td-recon n_td mean4d
0 2.0 NaN 1.000000 NaN
1 2.0 NaN 1.189207 NaN
2 2.0 NaN 1.414214 NaN
3 2.0 NaN 1.681793 0.250000
4 2.0 NaN 2.000000 0.297302
5 2.0 NaN 2.378414 0.353553
6 2.0 NaN 2.828427 0.420448
7 2.0 2.0 3.363586 0.500000
8 2.0 2.0 4.000000 0.594604
9 2.0 2.0 4.756828 0.707107
In :
df[['R_td', 'R_td-recon']].tail(n=5)

Out:
R_td R_td-recon
71 2.5 2.5
72 2.5 2.5
73 2.5 2.5
74 2.5 2.5
75 NaN NaN

Plot the reconstructed $R$ (dots) next to the real $R$ (crosses on line)

In :
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10,4))
ax.plot(t, df['R_td'], '-x', label='R_td')
ax.plot(t, df['R_td-recon'], 'o', label=f'n = R_td-recon')
ax.legend()
ax.set_title('Method 1');


So the method works but there is some over shooting and undershooting when $R$ changes abruptly.

### 3.3.2 Test Method 2: for time dependent $R$¶

In :
df['K'] = np.log(df['n_td']).diff(periods=1).shift(-1)

df['R_td-recon2'] = np.exp(df['K'] * tau)

In :
df[['R_td', 'R_td-recon2']].head()

Out:
R_td R_td-recon2
0 2.0 2.0
1 2.0 2.0
2 2.0 2.0
3 2.0 2.0
4 2.0 2.0
In :
df[['R_td', 'R_td-recon2']].tail()

Out:
R_td R_td-recon2
71 2.5 2.5
72 2.5 2.5
73 2.5 2.5
74 2.5 2.5
75 NaN NaN

Plot the reconstructed $R$ (triangles) next to the real $R$ (crosses on line)

In :
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10,4))
ax.plot(t, df['R_td'], '-x', label='R_td')
ax.plot(t, df['R_td-recon2'], '^', color='C2', label=f'R_td-recon2')
ax.legend()
ax.set_title('Method 2');


This method reconstructs R very accurately (for this data set). No overshooting, in comparison to method 1.

## Compare Method 1 and Method 2 for time dependent $R$¶

In :
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 4))
ax.plot(t, df['R_td'], '-x', linewidth=3, label='R_td')
ax.plot(t, df['R_td-recon'], 'o:', color="C1", label=f'n = R_td-recon')
ax.plot(t, df['R_td-recon2'], '^:', color="C2", label=f'n = R_td-recon2')
ax.legend()
ax.set_title('Method 1 and 2 in comparison');
ax.grid('on')


## 3.3.3 Summary time dependent $R$¶

Both methods recover the right value of $R$ after a period of approximately $\tau$ (which is 4 days here). Method 1 overshoots and undershoots following sudden changes of $R$.

## 3.4 Test 2: data with random noise¶

In reality, not only does the R value change through change in behaviour, we also have an incomplete and noisy measurement. Here we try to add some noise and reconstruct $R$ from the data despite the noise.

In :
N0 = 3
tau = 4
n_fake, t, Rvec = fake_growth(, [2.0], tau)

noise = np.random.uniform(size=t.shape) - 0.5
# add 10% noise (relative error to actual signal)
n_fake = pd.Series(n_fake * (1 + 0.5 * noise))

In :
fig, (ax, ax2, ax3) = plt.subplots(3, 1, figsize=(10, 6))
ax.step(t, n_fake, 'o-', color='C3', label=f'n = fake growth)')
ax3.plot(t, Rvec, '-o',color='C1', label="time dependent R0")
ax2.bar(t, n_fake.diff(), label='daily new cases')

ax3.set_xlabel('time [days]');
ax.legend(),
ax2.legend()

Out:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7f9f471ee220>
In :
df = pd.DataFrame({'R_td' : Rvec[0:-1], 'n_td' : n_fake[:-1], 'c_td' : n_fake.diff()[:-1]})

In :
df.head()

Out:
R_td n_td c_td
0 2.0 0.936830 NaN
1 2.0 1.320611 0.383782
2 2.0 1.583447 0.262836
3 2.0 1.927605 0.344158
4 2.0 1.864873 -0.062732
In :
df.tail()

Out:
R_td n_td c_td
45 2.0 1864.014033 -391.172119
46 2.0 2509.951719 645.937686
47 2.0 3827.889262 1317.937542
48 2.0 3242.451090 -585.438172
49 2.0 4828.372271 1585.921181

### 3.4.1 Test Method 1 on random noise¶

In :
df['mean4d'] = df['c_td'].rolling(4).mean()
df['R_td-recon'] = df['mean4d'] / df['mean4d'].shift(4)


Out:
R_td R_td-recon n_td mean4d
0 2.0 NaN 0.936830 NaN
1 2.0 NaN 1.320611 NaN
2 2.0 NaN 1.583447 NaN
3 2.0 NaN 1.927605 NaN
4 2.0 NaN 1.864873 0.232011
5 2.0 NaN 2.116506 0.198974
6 2.0 NaN 2.336619 0.188293
7 2.0 NaN 4.124488 0.549221
8 2.0 1.763747 3.501707 0.409208
9 2.0 3.785251 5.129165 0.753165
10 2.0 4.438231 5.679370 0.835688
11 2.0 0.511949 5.249180 0.281173
12 2.0 2.740233 7.987013 1.121327
13 2.0 1.862410 10.739972 1.402702
14 2.0 1.387906 10.318794 1.159856
15 2.0 6.125322 12.138283 1.722276
16 2.0 2.556420 19.453341 2.866582
17 2.0 1.473433 19.007121 2.066787
18 2.0 3.221772 25.265963 3.736792
19 2.0 2.937929 32.377981 5.059924
In :
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 4))
ax.plot(t[0:-1], df['R_td'], '-x', label='R_td')
ax.plot(t[0:-1], df['R_td-recon'], 'o', label=f'n = R_td-recon')
ax.legend()
ax.set_title('Method 1');


The noise seems amplified in the reconstructed R.

#### Let's try some smoothing of the noisy data:¶

In :
df['smooth_c'] = df['c_td'].rolling(7, center=True,
win_type='gaussian', min_periods=7).mean(std=3)
df['mean4d'] = df['smooth_c'].rolling(4).mean()

df['R_td-recon'] = df['mean4d'] / df['mean4d'].shift(4)


Out:
R_td R_td-recon n_td mean4d
0 2.0 NaN 0.936830 NaN
1 2.0 NaN 1.320611 NaN
2 2.0 NaN 1.583447 NaN
3 2.0 NaN 1.927605 NaN
4 2.0 NaN 1.864873 NaN
5 2.0 NaN 2.116506 NaN
6 2.0 NaN 2.336619 NaN
7 2.0 NaN 4.124488 0.442383
8 2.0 NaN 3.501707 0.482327
9 2.0 NaN 5.129165 0.594071
10 2.0 NaN 5.679370 0.740142
11 2.0 1.905533 5.249180 0.842975
12 2.0 2.112191 7.987013 1.018766
13 2.0 2.185930 10.739972 1.298597
14 2.0 2.067753 10.318794 1.530431
15 2.0 2.339904 12.138283 1.972480
16 2.0 2.458328 19.453341 2.504461
17 2.0 2.125677 19.007121 2.760398
18 2.0 2.194887 25.265963 3.359123
19 2.0 2.007036 32.377981 3.958839
In :
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 4))
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td'], '-x', label='R_td')
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td-recon'], 'o', label=f'n = R_td-recon')
ax.legend()
ax.set_title('Method 1 with smoothed input data');


While the reconstructed $R$ values are not exactly 2.0, they now range between ~1.4 and 2.5; so less than about 25% relative error (that's after smoothing the data).

### 3.4.2 Method 2 for data with random noise¶

In :
df['K'] = np.log(df['n_td']).diff(periods=1).shift(-1)
df['R_td-recon2'] = np.exp(df['K'] * tau)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 4))
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td'], '-x', label='R_td')
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td-recon2'], '^', color='C2', label=f'R_td-recon2')
ax.legend()
ax.set_title('Method 2');


#### Method 2 with smooting¶

In :
df['smooth_n'] = df['n_td'].rolling(7, center=True,
win_type='gaussian', min_periods=7).mean(std=3)
df['K'] = np.log(df['smooth_n']).diff(periods=1).shift(-1)
df['R_td-recon2'] = np.exp(df['K'] * tau)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 4))
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td'], '-x', label='R_td')
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td-recon2'], '^', color='C2', label=f'R_td-recon2')
ax.legend()
ax.set_title('Method 2 with smoothing of input data');

In :
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 4))
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td'], '-x', linewidth=3, label='R_td')
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td-recon'], 'o:', color="C1", label=f'n = R_td-recon')
ax.plot(t[:-1], df['R_td-recon2'], '^:', color="C2", label=f'n = R_td-recon2')
ax.legend()
ax.set_title('Method 1 and 2 in comparison');
ax.grid('on')


## 3.4.3 Summary¶

Method 1 and 2 perform similarly for data with random noise. Smoothing of the input data is important.

## Conclusions¶

• Reconstruction of R from perfect exponential growth works using both methods.

• Reconstruction of R from exponential growth with sudden rate changes works well for method 2. For method 1, the algorithm seems stable, and returns the correct value R (after ~tau days) if R is constant but based on the test data used here is less accurate than method 2.

• Use smoothing for the case numbers (or the diff of the case numbers) seems to improve estimates, and is important (in particular to deal with noise in the data).

• It is important for the rolling averages (both for the smoothing of the diff, and for the 4-day average) to use all data points, and not to ignore some. If we use 'min_values=' to allow fewer data points, the reconstructed R values show systematic errors at the beginning and end of the interval. (This is not show above but has been explored separately.)

• For now, we use Method 1 in the computation of R on the OSCOVIDA site. The relevant source code is in the file oscovida.py in the function plot_reproduction_number, which in turn calls compute_R.

• This is for historical reasons and a lack of time for more systematic testing of method 2.
• using method 2, we may also get rid of the lag of $\tau$ days in the computation of R

# 4. Demo: compute R with OSCOVIDA¶

In :
import oscovida

In :
cases, deaths = oscovida.get_country_data("Germany")

In :
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1 , figsize=(12, 4))
# change, smooth, smooth2 = oscovida.compute_daily_change(cases)
oscovida.plot_reproduction_number(ax, cases, "C1")

# Compare with more manual calculation

# compute change from day to day
diff = cases.diff()
# smooth that change
smooth_diff = diff.rolling(7, center=True, win_type='gaussian').mean(std=4)
# Compute R using method 1
R = oscovida.compute_R(smooth_diff, tau=4)

# plot as thin line
ax.plot(R.index, R, "g", label=r"R (estimated with $\tau$=4 days using RKI algorithm)", linewidth=1)

ax.legend()
ax.set_ylim([0.7, 2]);


The computation of R is done in the overview plots. See https://oscovida.github.io/plots.html for more details:

In :
oscovida.overview("Germany");

Germany cases